Titus 1-3 The Truthful Do Good

TMS Psalm 119:9,11 The Key To Godliness
Ps 119:9,11 “9 How can a young man cleanse his way?
By taking heed according to Your word.

10 With my whole heart I have sought You;
Oh, let me not wander from Your commandments!

11 Your word I have hidden in my heart,
That I might not sin against You.

Observations: 119:9,11 Those who embrace “worm theology” (oh I'm such a worthless sinner, praise God for saving me) and remain creepy crawly caterpillars rather than metamorphing into butterfly believers (Rm 12:1-2) should memorize all three of the these verses. Even though verse 10 is not included in the TMS, it is key to the victorious life of a godly believer. Paying attention to (obeying) God's word cleanses/purifies one's way (1Pt 1:22). Hiding God's word in your heart (through memorization) is parallel to the New Covenant blessing of having the Holy Spirit write the law in your heart where your value system and decision-making process reside. But not all those who seek to obey and memorize live in victory. That's because wholeheartedly seeking God (like Caleb did) keeps one from wandering off the path of light into darkness. See observations under Psalm 119 for context and additional help.

Application: Start by studying memorizing key passages of God's word (like the TMS or 7PASSAGES); think though implications for applications; and then do them (obey), wholeheartedly. When tempted to wander, get help/accountability and redouble your efforts.

Prayer: Heavenly Father, I know You require me to be holy as You are holy to experience Your blessings and glory now, and in the future; please guide me in saturating my life with your truth so I don't sin in following lies. Thanks. Amen.

Titus 1-3 This third Pastoral epistle covers many of the themes written in the two to Timothy, but with an emphasis on being sound-minded (having one's passions governed by objectives), so that believers can do good works, and gain glory when Christ returns. The consequence is receiving the blessed hope of the believer, sharing the glory of Christ in the Millennial Kingdom. Some see 2:11-14 as the chiastic center of the book, bracketed by instructions, bad behavior, and then good behavior; such an arrangement is plausible. The chart is one from the first survey course I did (where the titles spelled an acrostic outline of the book). One of these days I'll resurrect them and incorporate them into DTB. The emphasis on being godly, sound-minded, and doing good works should be obvious, as should the implementation in our lives.

Titus 1 Godly Elders and Evil Lazy-bellies
1:1 Paul, a servant of God, and an apostle of Jesus Christ, with a view to the faith of God’s chosen ones/elect, and their experiential knowledge of the truth which leads to godliness (NIV), 2 based upon hope of eternal life, which God, who can’t lie, promised before time began; 3 but in his own time revealed his word in the message with which I was entrusted according to the commandment of God our Savior; 4 to Titus, my true son according to a common faith: Grace, mercy, and peace from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ our Savior.
5 I left you in Crete for this reason, that you would set in order the things that were lacking, and appoint elders in every city, as I directed you;
6 if anyone is blameless, the husband of one wife, having faithful children, who are not accused of wild or unruly behavior. 7 For the overseer must be blameless, as God’s steward; not self-pleasing, not easily angered, not given to wine, not violent, not greedy for dishonest gain; 8 but given to hospitality, a lover of good, sound-minded, fair, holy, self-controlled; 9 holding to the faithful word which is according to the teaching, that he may be able to exhort in the sound teaching/doctrine, and to convict those who contradict him.
10 For there are also many unruly men, vain talkers and deceivers, especially those of the circumcision, 11 whose mouths must be stopped; men who overthrow whole houses, teaching things which they ought not, for dishonest gain’s sake. 12 One of them, a prophet of their own, said, "Cretans are always liars, evil beasts, and idle gluttons." 13 This testimony is true. For this cause, reprove them sharply, that they may be sound in the faith, 14 not paying attention to Jewish fables and commandments of men who turn away from the truth. 15 To the pure, all things are pure; but to those who are defiled and unbelieving/unfaithful, nothing is pure; but both their mind and their conscience are defiled. 16 They profess that they know God, but by their works they deny him, being abominable, disobedient, and unfit for any good work.

Observations: 1:1-4 In an introduction similar to that which he wrote to Timothy (see comments there), Paul elaborates upon why he is an apostle. God commissioned him with a view to (a classical idiom for kata -RWP OLB) to bring about and further the faith of God's chosen group (by his proclamation to the Gentiles), and to teach the truth (1Tim 2:7; 2Tim 1:11) that leads to or is in accord with godliness. Godliness was a word used of pagan priests who knew and did what the gods required; it is parallel to OT righteousness, being careful to know and do all that God desires. Godliness only comes about when people embrace and experience the truth to the extent that it characterizes them. The difference between knowledge (gnosis), experiential knowledge (epignosis) and godliness can be illustrated with the following. I live in NYC and many people have never learned how to ride a bicycle. I'll ask in a class if there is anyone who doesn't know how to ride a bicycle. A few hands usually go up, and then I ask them where a person sits, where they put their hands, how to steer, how to make the bicycle move, and always get correct answers. They do know how to ride a bicycle, but they've never actually experienced it. That's the difference between the head knowledge many Christians have about their faith, and the experiential knowledge God requires for godliness. I have a friend who was really into riding his bike, to the extent that he'd shave his legs to “cut down on the wind drag” when he rode competitively. He had so much experiential knowledge and miles or riding, that he would be characterized as a biker (the shoes, spandex, gloves, and helmet didn't hurt the image either). As followers of Christ, we need to be so characterized by our application of truth, that we would be called godly. This kind of commitment to knowing and doing what pleases God is rare, because it needs a motivation that most people don't have, so as a result they are more motivated by what the world offers, than what God offers.
The godly motivation is in verse 2. Godliness according to Paul (and the Holy Spirit) is based upon the hope of eternal life. This is not hope of forgiveness/justification, for that is a present possession received by faith. One doesn't hope for what they already have. The hope is of dominion or rulership in the Age to come, the Messianic Age. “Eternal” was used of all classical authors of a fixed period of time, or an age. Only Plato used it of both a fixed and sometimes an indeterminate period (Kittle -TDNTT). See Survey of Rewards on Truthbase.net for the documentation. Most occurrences of aion in the NT are clearly referring to the Messianic Age. The idiom “forever and ever” is literally “to the Age(s) of the Ages.
This hope, or expectation of reward, is based upon the promises of God in the OT (e.g., Isaiah 40-66), as Paul proclaimed in the good news. All the “greats” of the faith were motivated by the expectation of reward: Abraham, Moses, David, Jesus, Paul, etc. See Hebrews 11, where all are being commended for believing that God rewards those who diligently seek Him. See Some Rewarding Verses for Contemplation for a short list, and the abovementioned Survey of Rewards for my class notes on the topic.
This dual purpose of Paul of developing faith and godliness so folks could be rewarded is entirely consistent with Christ's commission of him.
Acts 26:15 “So I said, 'Who are You, Lord?' And He said, 'I am Jesus, whom you are persecuting. 16 But rise and stand on your feet; for I have appeared to you for this purpose, to make you a minister and a witness both of the things which you have seen and of the things which I will yet reveal to you. 17 I will deliver you from the Jewish people, as well as from the Gentiles, to whom I now send you, 18 to open their eyes, in order to turn them from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan to God, that they may receive forgiveness of sins and an inheritance among those who are sanctified by faith in Me.'”
1:5-9 Paul spells out the reason he left Titus in Crete, to set things in order in the churches, and appoint elders in every city. Apostolic sanction was necessary for the infant church, and then the Body would be able to recognize and acknowledge those believers whom the Holy Spirit had matured. In Acts 20:28 he tells the elders Timothy had appointed that the Holy Spirit had made them overseers and shepherds. See comments on 1Timothy 3 for more about the receptivity to the Holy Spirit required for both maturity and caring for God's flock. The rest of the chapter outlines characteristics of good guys, and the bad guys whom the elders were to confront and convict.
See the list under Digging Deeper for an elaboration of the Marks of Maturity/Godliness, which are applicable to all believers who base their lives on the hope of eternal life. Note that Paul tells him to appoint elders (1:5), and then talks about overseers/bishops (1:7). See Acts 20:17, 28 and 1Peter 5:1-2 for the same equation. As in 1Timothy 3 the home life is reflective of the spiritual life, and the children are reflective of the parents. The elder must have passed on not just the faith, but faithfulness to his offspring. Just like an overseer had to be blameless (unindictable), the children could not be open to the charge of being wild (literally “not savers”), nor unruly (“not submissive”). Through his example and instruction, the father must have taught his kids to not spend all they have, developing in them self-control of desires, and delayed gratification. The key to submission is highlighting and hindering rebellion, while not being a corrupt authority which incites rebellion. These should be the goals of all parents. See the Parenting Resources on Truthbase.net for help in raising the next generation of godly leaders.
The key characteristic mentioned for all the groups in chapter 2, and absent from the lazy gluttons in the end of this chapter, and something the grace of God should teach (2:12) is being sound-minded, sometimes translated self-controlled, which is better than the KJV sober (which leads some to conclude that the chief virtue of the Christian life is not getting drunk), but still is an inadequate translation. The Greek ideal of virtue or excellence (arete) was achieved by being sound-minded, having one's passions governed by objectives (the rational/spiritual realm), rather than passions, instincts and appetites (the irrational/physical realm). A sound-minded person doesn't do what they desire, they do what God desires, knowing that pleasing Him is in their greater self-interest.
1:10-16 In addition to characteristics that enabled them to develop a consensus on the Lord's will for His Body (communicated through the objective and subjective revelation of the Holy Spirit), elders needed to know and embody the truth so they could teach it and refute those who opposed it. There were (and still are) many who do the devil's work in opposing God's truth and will. Paul describes them as unruly (same word used in verse 6 of the unsubmitted), profitless (vain) talkers, and deceivers of others with Satan's lies, particularly those advocating circumcision and OT ritual keeping as a means of getting blessed (Judaizers). They must be confronted and silenced so they don't influence others for the sake of temporal gain, and overthrow others' faith in God's promises (cf 2Tim 2:18). Paul quotes one of the Cretan prophets (it's always good to have someone else say the things at which people will take offense), to highlight their lying, laziness, and non-spiritual self-indulgence. These false teachers must be reproved sharply (error brought to light) so they might be sound/healthy in the faith. This should clue you into the fact that these are believers. The solution is not to evangelise them, so they believe in Christ's substitutionary atonement (they already did that), but to educate them in the truth. Sometimes one has to blast before they can build. The deficiency is not a lack of being born again, but a lack of living the new life. Such a life would be characterized by truthfulness, and attention to the truth, rather than lying and following fables and the commands of men (who turn away from the truth, which implies they had and knew it). They profess to know God (pay attention to Him), but deny Him obedience by their works, doing their will rather than God's will, and as a result both their mind and conscience are defiled (unfit for service and blessing). Remember the conscience is what governs our sense of what is right and wrong; by habitually disobeying, one loses the ability to discern good and evil. They become unfit rather than equipped for the good works God created them in Christ to do (Eph 2:10). To those who are holy/pure, all things are pure (don't sweat the details of Jewish purification or foods), but to the defiled (stained) and unfaithful (the opposite of the faithful elder's children in verse 6), nothing is pure, but everything they touch or say is tainted, because it comes from an impure heart. In contrast to the elders who are lovers of what is good, these disobedient believers are unfit for doing anything good, much less teach others. Notice that these are people in the church, opposing the truth, spreading lies, indulging their desires, saying they know (pay attention to) God, but their lives invalidate that claim. Many teach (incorrectly) that these are unregenerate people in the church. Paul wouldn't have to warn against people who denied that Jesus died for their sins. The thing being denied is the lifestyle of pleasing God, which has much greater applicability to ancient and modern audiences. Remember the corrective is not to evangelise so they accept Christ, but to refute falsehood so they follow Christ in truth, and can be blessed.
Mt 15:8 “'These people draw near to Me with their mouth, and honor Me with their lips, but their heart is far from Me. 9 And in vain they worship Me, teaching as doctrines the commandments of men.' "
Application: All believers should embody godliness, so they can do the good works for which God created them in Christ.

Prayer: God, thanks that You flesh out the truth in the lives of faithful believers; may I be a model of godliness; please show me whatever needs to change in my life so it will be characterized by Your desire. Amen.

Titus 2 The Sound-Minded Are Godly
2:1 But speak the things which fit sound doctrine,
2 that older men should be temperate, sensible/honorable, sound-minded, sound/healthy in faith, in love, and in patience/endurance:
3 and that older women likewise be reverent/godly in behavior, not slanderers nor enslaved to much wine, teachers of that which is good;
4 that they may train the young women to love their husbands, to love their children, 5 to be sound-minded, chaste, workers at home, kind, being in subjection to their own husbands, that God’s word may not be blasphemed.
6 Likewise, exhort the younger men to be sound-minded;
7 in all things showing yourself an example of good works; in your teaching showing integrity, seriousness, incorruptibility, 8 and soundness of speech that can’t be condemned; that he who opposes you may be ashamed, having no evil thing to say about us.
9 Exhort servants to be in subjection to their own masters, and to be well-pleasing in all things; not contradicting; 10 not stealing, but showing all good fidelity; that they may adorn the doctrine of God, our Savior, in all things.
11 For the grace of God that brings salvation to all men, 
has been revealed/manifested 
12 instructing/training us to the intent that,
denying ungodliness and worldly lusts
we would live sound-mindedly, righteously, and godly in this present age;
13 looking for the blessed hope and appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior, Jesus Christ
14 who gave himself for us,
 that he might redeem us from all iniquity
and purify for himself a people for his own possession
zealous for good works.
15 Speak these things and exhort and reprove with all authority. Let no man despise you.

Observations: 2:1-6 In contrast to the bad guys who don't speak what is in accord with sound/healthy teaching/doctrine, which benefit the hearers, Timothy should speak those things which do. Paul describes four groups, and the common characteristic, is sound-mindedness (temporal passions governed by eternal objectives). It is the only item mentioned for young men (other than Titus' example), and is implicit in the requirement for the older women to be able to teach it to the younger women. Here women teach, but not to men. The behaviors specified are self-explanatory lifestyle choices, worth adopting wholeheartedly, so the word of God will be authenticated and upheld by their lives, rather than disparaged.
2:7-10 In all things Titus is to be an example of good works (again unlike the bad guys in the last chapter who follow their own desires). In his teaching, he must have integrity, both with regard to the text, and his own life, so what he said couldn't be discounted or refuted. He was to instruct slaves/employees to adorn the doctrine/teaching of God by their exemplary work ethic and performance.
2:11-12 The reason Paul should teach believers to have lives consistent with their belief is because the saving grace of God (KJV = which brings salvation/glorification) has been revealed (Lk 1:79; Titus 3:4) to all men/women (Jews/Greeks). The promise of Messianic grace should prompt believers to deny ungodly behavior and indulgence in temporal lusts and live sound-mindedly, righteously, and in a godly manner in this present age (here's the word for eternal – aion used for a temporal period of time, this age -Strong's # 165). The grace/glory that was brought to light through the Messianic heralds (from John to the apostles) and Christ Himself, should train (word used for disciplining children and athletes) us to go for the glory rather than the gory corruption of sin.
2:13-15 Those who live as God desires are motivated by the hope of the dominion/glory of the age (eternal life – 1:2). The KJV, NKJV, and NIV translators did a disservice to countless believers by translating the noun “glory” as an adjective (“glorious appearing”) rather than in accord with the grammar, and in harmony with the context, as “appearing of the glory” (ASV, NASB, ESV, etc.). Believers don't hope for Christ's eventual return (there is no uncertainty in that) but they do hope for the glory/grace of God/Jesus that will be given them (1Pt 1:13). Note the equation of God and Jesus.
1Peter 1:13 Therefore gird up the loins of your mind, be sober, and rest your hope fully upon the grace that is to be brought to you at the revelation of Jesus Christ; 14 as obedient children, not conforming yourselves to the former lusts, as in your ignorance; 15 but as He who called you is holy, you also be holy in all your conduct, 16 because it is written, "Be holy, for I am holy." 17 And if you call on the Father, who without partiality judges according to each one's work, conduct yourselves throughout the time of your stay here in fear...”
The motivation for doing good works is hope of reward: “Well done, good and faithful servant.” (See Some Rewarding Verses for Contemplation). This is in keeping with God's plan in saving us (Eph 1). Jesus gave himself to justify us, so that that he might redeem us from all iniquity and purify (sanctify) for Himself a people loyal to Him, who would be zealous for doing good works (see Survey of Good Works on Truthbase.net if you have any doubt what they are). Those who don't do good works are either not justified unbelievers, or believers behaving badly. The latter view is the only one consistent with justification by faith.
As he instructed Timothy, Paul tells Titus to not let anyone's disparaging of him discourage him from encouraging and reproving with all authority.

Application: Sanctified believers should be zealous for good works (know what they are and do them) motivated by the glory/grace God will give them, so they will not be tempted to go for the world's glory.

Prayer: Lord, help me value Your glory, so I will deny my desires and live for Yours, as a sound-minded and saved former sinner. Amen.

Titus 3 Saved to Serve
3:1 Remind them to be in subjection to rulers and to authorities, to be obedient, to be ready for every good work, 2 to speak evil of no one, not to be contentious, to be gentle, showing all humility toward all men. 3 For we were also once foolish, disobedient, deceived, serving various lusts and pleasures, living in malice and envy, hateful, and hating one another.

4 But when the kindness/goodness of God our Savior and his love toward mankind appeared,
5 not by works of righteousness, which we did ourselves,
but according to his mercy,
he saved us,
through the washing of regeneration and renewing by the Holy Spirit,
6 whom he poured out on us richly, through Jesus Christ our Savior;
7 so that, being justified by his grace,
we might become heirs
according to the hope of eternal life/dominion of the Age.

8 This saying is faithful, and concerning these things I desire that you affirm confidently, so that those who have believed God may be careful to give attention to good works. These things are good and profitable to men;
9 but shun foolish questionings, genealogies, strife, and disputes about the law; for they are unprofitable and vain. 10 Avoid/reject a factious/divisive man after a first and second warning; 11 knowing that such a one is perverted/warped, and sinning, being self-condemned.
12 When I send Artemas to you, or Tychicus, be diligent to come to me to Nicopolis, for I have determined to winter there. 13 Send Zenas, the lawyer, and Apollos on their journey speedily, that nothing may be lacking for them. 14 Let our people also learn to maintain good works for necessary uses, that they may not be unfruitful. 15 All who are with me greet you. Greet those who love us in faith. Grace be with you all. Amen.

Observations: 3:1-7 Paul instructs Titus to remind all believers to be in submission to ruling authorities, and be ready/prepared to engage in every good work. They are also not to speak evil of others, nor be contentious, but gentle and humble toward all, since they were once difficult to be around too. Before believing in Christ, they were foolish and disobedient, deceived, and enslaved to their lusts and pleasures, incapable of loving relationships with others. But that all changed when the goodness and love (literally “philanthropy”) was manifested. He saved them (Paul includes himself in this group of justified, forgiven, and born again believers), but not by their works (because they were worthless). He saved them in accordance with His mercy (Eph 2:4) by means of the washing/cleansing (only used in Eph 5:26) that is sourced in regeneration and the renewal that is sourced in the Holy Spirit. See more comments on this in the observations in the Topical Memory System post in Titus 3:5. Paul focuses on the work of the Holy Spirit, given richly at the time of our trust in Christ (conversion/justification), so that (hina + subjunctive verb = purpose statement) those who have been justified by His grace (forgiven, done deal, can't be undone by bad behavior because it wasn't done by good behavior), might (subjunctive/conditional mood) become heirs or inheritors, according to the hope/expectation of eternal life (dominion in the Messianic Age). This is in accord with God's purpose, but it's achievement is up to us (Eph 1; Rom 11), hence the importance of obedient good works.
3:8-11 Paul wants Titus to affirm this faithful saying so that those those who have believed in God might be careful to give attention to good works which God has planned for them. It would make no sense to Titus to be told to emphasize this if verse 7 isn't conditional. This is in accord with the OT theme of righteousness (careful to do what is right in His sight) being necessary for blessings in the Promised Land (a theme of the NT too -Mt 5-7). These things are good, and profitable in the future Kingdom (1Tim 4:8).
But unprofitable things are vain/worthless and should be avoided, especially disputes about the law. A person who insists on choosing their own way contrary to sound teaching and logic (hairetikos, from which we get the English “heretic”) should be rejected after two warnings (three strikes and you're out). Some people don't want to bring their thinking into alignment with the truth, and sometime the most loving thing to do is have nothing to do with them. Exposing them to more truth which they will continue to reject, just sets them up for more judgment. This is one of the reasons Jesus began speaking in parables after the leaders of the nation made it clear they didn't want to accept truth. It's also better stewardship of time and blood pressure. Paul makes some unflattering summations about the ones who reject the truth; they are warped or twisted out of the right way, sinning, and self-condemned (not a person to pal around with).
3:12-15 As usual, Paul adds some personal notes, when Titus gets relieved by Artemas or Tychicus, he should hasten to see Paul at Nicopolis. He should also send Zenos and Apollos (they would have been a good debating team) on their ministry journey with all they need materially. The material provision would come from the believers at Crete, who must learn (imperative) to give attention to good works that provide for the material needs of others so that they (the Cretans) wouldn't be unfruitful (in their faith, in light of the coming glory).
All who were with Paul said “Hi” and Titus should say “Hey” to all those who love (philos) Paul and his companions. Finally he wishes Titus and company the covenantal blessing of grace.
Application: God saved us irrespective of what we did, so we could become heirs of His glory based upon what we do; so do what He desires.
Prayer: God, thanks for forgiving me in Christ; and planning to bless me more in the future; may I walk worthy of Your glory, doing the good works for which You created me. Amen.

Digging Deeper

God in a nutshell: Saves people, not on the basis of works but to do good works, for which they gain glory. He pours out His Spirit upon them so they have the means to become godly and the grace to do the good works.

Build-a-Jesus: Jesus is God, and will appear in His glory to give glory to faithful, sound-minded believers.

Us in a nutshell: We are given truth so we can apply it, becoming godly in the process. Godly believers are on track for glory by harnessing their passions for God's purposes (being sound-minded). Those who don't do that are unfit for doing anything good, defiled, and disqualified from sharing in the glory of the eternal kingdom (bad choice).

Titus 3:4 contains two words that are manifestations of God, often translated “kindness and love” which while true of God, are not suited to the context, and lead the English reader astray from a beneficial application of the text.
Kindness (5544 χρηστοτης chrestotes) usually leads us to think of a sweet disposition that is nice to others.
Goodness would be a little better translation, but in Galatians 5:22, the “fruits” of the Spirit, elaborating on love, list kindness (#5544) and goodness (#19 αγαθωσυνη agathosune) next to each other, indicating that kindness is different enough from goodness to be listed separately,* as are longsuffering and self-control, etc. In the KJV the fruit #5544 chrestotes, is translated “gentleness,” which misses the real meaning even more than “kindness” does.

So how should we understand #5544 chrestotes?
5444 “usefulness” comes from #5543 “employed” (below). Neither is a demeanor word.
5543 “employed” is the root meaning of the base of “usefulness.” So what does being employed or useful have to do with “kindness”? There actually is a link, but it isn't that obvious in modern usage.

A person has to have something in order to share it with others (Eph 4:28). Romans 3:12 contrasts  #5544 chrestotes with “unprofitable” (#889 is the verb;  #888 is the adjective used of the unprofitable servant in Mt 25:30). Romans 3:12 is a quote of Psalm 14:1-3, describing the abominable practical atheist who doesn't seek after God, nor do anything that benefits anyone or anything other than their lusts. The rest of Romans 3 and Psalm 14:1-3 are pretty similar to the unprofitable behavior in Titus 3:3. Clearly when understood in context, chrestotes isn't about being kind vs unkind, but about being beneficial to or profiting others rather than indulging one's carnal desires.

Romans 11:22 contrasts God's goodness/kindness toward those who abide/continue in His beneficence
with His severity (which has the root idea of “cut” or sever) toward those who don't continue, and will be cut off like a tree, branch, or hand.

For reasons outlined above and below, I think we should resurrect a little used word: “beneficence,”  which is is a character trait that produces/causes benefit or something good for others. You're aware of “beneficial”, which leads most to think of benefit, or good for you, and that is closer in meaning. “Bene” is good. And “-fic” is a root meaning to “make, produce, or cause.”

Linked with “kindness/goodness/beneficence” in Titus 3:4 is “love” #5363 φιλανθρωπια philanthropia from which we get the English philanthropy. It is a combination of the word for philos (a word to define the bonds of affection in a family as in phil-adelphia=brotherly love), but instead of being confined to specific family members, it is expressed toward a large portion of humanity. It is used only one other time in the NT Scriptures:
Acts 28:2 And the barbarous people showed us no little philanthropia/kindness: for they kindled a fire, and received us every one, because of the present rain, and because of the cold.
“Barbarous” is the Greek designation of an unmannerly non-Greek, ie, a barbarian (915 βαρβαρος barbaros). Here Luke portrays them as extending a concern for the well being of the shipwreck victims, something one would normally do for family members.

So both “beneficence” and “philanthropy” are the characteristics of God that He displayed in the salvation process of Titus 3:5-7, which should be reflected in the interactions of recipients of that grace toward others. Rather than being consumed and devouring with the “satisfactions” of their passions/lusts reflected in their taking pieces out of others, they should be benefiting others as specified in Titus 3:8-11, which would include the avoidance of unbeneficial/unprofitable behaviors in verse 9, and the commands that could be considered by cultural Christians to be “unloving” and “unkind” in verses 10-11.

Titus 3:8 This is a faithful saying, and these things I want you to affirm constantly, that those who have believed in God should be careful to maintain good works. These things are good and profitable to men. 9 But avoid foolish disputes, genealogies, contentions, and strivings about the law; for they are unprofitable and useless. 10 Reject a divisive man after the first and second admonition, 11 knowing that such a person is warped and sinning, being self-condemned.

Models of Godliness - Elder Qualifications 

1 Timothy 4:7 train yourself to be godly 6:11 pursue righteousness, godliness, faith, love... Titus 1:1 apostle for faith...and experiential knowledge of the truth which leads to godliness, 2 Peter 1:3  add to your faith...perseverance, godliness...not unfruitful...rich welcome

Titus 1:6  elder must be blameless, the husband of but one wife, a man whose children believe & are not open to the charge of being wild & disobedient.
I Timothy 3:2-5 Now the overseer must be above reproach, the husband of but one wife... 4 He must manage his own family well and see that his children obey him with proper respect. 5 (If anyone doesn't know how to manage his own family, how can he take care of God's church?)
I. BLAMELESS (Above reproach, Unindictable)
A. Is there anything in his life that has not been dealt with in a biblical manner? Could you charge him with any uncorrected wrongdoing? Is there any way in which he is not a model of godliness?
B. If so, follow the principle of Matthew 18.
C. Can he limit his natural desires to do what God desires or what is best for others?
D. Is he a model of godliness, in the sense that he is characterized by consistent experiential knowledge (application) of truth?
E. Does his behavior indicate that his actions are based upon a strong hope or expectation of eternal rewards? (Titus 1:2)
II. HUSBAND-OF ONE WIFE (One woman man)
A. Are his attentions and delights focused solely on his wife?
B. Do his interactions with other women indicate that he is a one-woman man?
C. Does his relationship with his wife indicate that he would not drift towards an actual or fantasized affair?
D .Do the observable parts of his life provide evidence that he has control of his desires?
E. Does he limit his desires, for the benefit of his wife?
III. BELIEVING CHILDREN (Passing on the faith)
A. Has he passed on his faith to his children (and others)?
B. Is his relationship with Jesus such that it is attractive to others?
C. Is he free from hypocrisy so that he's the same at church and at home?
IV. BEHAVING CHILDREN (Passing on the lifestyle)
A. Has he passed on the sound-minded control of his emotions and desires to his children?
B. Do his children (disciples) demonstrate the ability to limit their desires for a higher objective (wild = not saving)?
C. Has he passed on the lifestyle of submission to authority? Or are his children rebellious?
D. Do his children obey him with God-fearing respect?
E. Do his children honor their parents?
A. Does his family exhibit the Biblical pattern for families (Eph 5-6; Col 3) Is it a model for others?
B. Does his wife respond to his leadership with respect and submission?
C. Is he disciplining and training his children to fear the Lord?
D. Would you want the church to be like his family life?
E. Does he take the initiative in solving family difficulties or does he let things smolder until things explode?
F. Is his home in such an order that it can be used as a base for ministry?
Titus 1:7 Since an overseer is entrusted with God's work, he must be blameless--not overbearing, not quick-tempered, not given to drunkenness, not violent, not pursuing dishonest gain. I Timothy -3:3 not given to drunkenness, not violent but gentle, not quarrelsome, not a lover of money.
A. If you were God. would you hire him and entrust him with your property or business?   B. Why or why not?
VII. NOT OVERBEARING (Self-willed, Self-pleasing)
A. Does he insist on having his own way?
B. Does he patiently persuade or force his opinion on others?
C. Is he open to new ideas?
D. Does he nit-pick the little things under the guise of being right?
E. Does he make decisions based on what's right or what pleases him?./
F. Is he sensitive to what is in another's best interest as well as their feelings and preferences?
A. Can he endure injustice and ill-treatment?
B. Does he insist on being right?
C. Does he have to tell you what he thinks or can he control his anger?
D. In the face of sheer stupidity can he channel his outrage constructively?
E. Does irritation quickly flare up into anger?
A. Does he avoid or escape his responsibilities through procrastination?
B. Does he comfort himself or alter his experience or reality through alcohol, food, TV, travel, computer games or other forms of amusement?
C. Can he face and do the unpleasant?
D. Does he avoid and run away from failure or overcome and learn from it?
XI. NOT VIOLENT (Hasty in striking an opponent)
A. When wronged, does he lash out or seek to get even or get revenge?
B. Can he attack a position without attacking the person?
C. Has he freed himself from unrighteous anger, hate or hostility?
D. Can he disagree without being disagreeable?
E. Would you call him a peacemaker who can reconcile relationships?
F. Does he seek to understand another's position and the reasoning (or lack thereof) behind it before attacking the position?
A. Is he free from the love of money? Is he a workaholic?
B. Would he compromise a principle to add to his principal?
C. Does he live within a budget?
D. Does he tithe, recognizing God's ownership of all he has?
E. Will he compromise (not forsake) the truth so others will like him?
F. Does he base his estimate of himself and others on their income?
*G. Does he place his job ahead of his family or spiritual responsibilities, or does he neglect spiritual service for work?
Titus 1:8 Rather he must be hospitable, one who loves what is good, who is self-controlled, upright, holy and disciplined 
I Timothy 3:2 temperate self-controlled, respectable, hospitable, able to teach
XIII. HOSPITABLE (Lover of strangers)
A. Does he seek out strangers and visitors and make them feel welcome?
B. Can he develop a relationship with a stranger to the point where he can discern & help accomplish God's purposes for that person?
C. Does he use his home as a base for ministering to other's needs?
D. Is he growing in his circle of acquaintances and friendships?
Rom 12:13 Share with God's people who are in need. Practice hospitality  Heb 13:2 Do not forget to entertain strangers, for by so doing some people have entertained strangers without knowing it. 1Pt 4:9 Offer hospitality to one another without grumbling.
A. Is he attracted toward what is good?
B. What good works have you seen demonstrated in his life?
C. Does he have a disdain for what is not good?
2Tim 3:2 People will be lovers of themselves, lovers of money, boastful, proud, abusive. disobedient to their parents, ungrateful unholy, 3 without love, unforgiving, slanderous, without self-control, brutal, not lovers of good, 4 treacherous, rash, conceited, lovers of pleasure rather than lovers of God--5 having a form of godliness but denying its power. Have nothing to do with them. 7 always learning but never able to acknowledge the truth.
XV. SOUND MINDED (Self-controlled)
A. Does he govern his life by principles and objectives or by natural drives, appetites, and lusts. (i.e., sex or security)?
B. Is it obvious that he limits what he could be doing in order to do what God wants?
C. Can he explain the thinking behind his actions or does he just go with the flow?
D. Does his mind control his feelings and actions or does he react and then rationalize?
E. Does he think before he acts, making decisions based on accurate information?
F. Does he have grasp of the big picture so that he knows when he has enough information to make a decision that pleases God?
Mk 5:15 When they came to Jesus, they saw the man who had been possessed by the legion of demons, sitting there, dressed and in his right mind,- and they were afraid. (see also 2 Cor 5:13)  Ac 26:25 "I am not insane, most excellent Festus, ' Paul replied. "What I am saying is true and reasonable. Rm 12:3 For by the grace given me I say to every one of you.- Do not think of yourself more highly than you ought, but rather think of yourself with sober judgment, in accordance with the measure of faith God has given you. 2Tim 1 7 For God did not give us a spirit of timidity, but a spirit of power and of love and of self-discipline. Titus 2:2 each the older men to be temperate, worthy of respect, self-controlled, and sound in faith, in love and in endurance. Titus 2:5 to be self-controlled and pure, to be busy at home, to be kind, and to be subject to their husbands so that no one will malign the word of God. 12 It teaches us to say "No " to ungodliness and worldly passions, and to live self-controlled, upright, and godly lives in this present age,
XVI. JUST (Upright)
A. Has he taught himself to automatically know what is right and just and fair in the common circumstances of life (through steeping his values in Proverbs)?
B. Does he exhibit justice and fairness in dealing even with his opponents?
C. Does he operate according to God's standards and principles in all spheres of his life'?
D. Does he make decisions based on God's perspectives and values?
A. Does he know or seek out what God wants or desires when faced with a decision?
B. Could you say that he does what Jesus would do in any given situation?
C. Would he be known as devout or pious?
D. Does he exhibit a concern for pleasing God?
E. Is he a model of personal holiness?
F. Do his speech and values indicate that he is in the world but not of the world?
G. Doss he care more about what God thinks than what others think?
Eph 4:22 You were taught, with regard to your former way of life, to put off your old desires; 23 to be made new in the attitude of your minds; 24 and to put on the new self, created to be like God in true righteousness and holiness.
]Tim 2:10 You are witnesses, and so is God, of how holy, righteous and blameless we were among you who believed.
I Tim 2:81 want men everywhere to lift up holy hands in prayer, without anger or disputing.
Heb 7:26 Such a high priest meets our need-one who is holy, blameless, pure, set apart from sinners, exalted above the heavens.
XVIII. DISCIPLINED (Power under control)
A. Does his will control his life so that he does what God wants even when his emotions and past experiences point in another direction?
B. Is there evidence that he can make or break a habit?
C. Does he consistently practice the disciplines of the Christian life: devotional time, Scripture memory, Bible study, and prayer?
D. Is self-control evident in his eating, exercise, and speech habits?
E. Can he inhibit or exhibit a desire at will?
F. Is it obvious that he is in training for the prize?
G. Is he controlling his life or are others or circumstances ruling it?
Ac 24:25 As Paul discoursed on righteousness, self-control and the judgment to come, Felix was afraid and said 'that's enough for now! You may leave. When I find it convenient, I will send for you. "
1Co 7:9 But if they cannot control themselves, they should marry, for it is better to marry than to bum.
1Co 9:25 Everyone who competes in the games goes into strict training. 7hey do it to get a crown that will not last,- but we do it to get a crown that will last forever. Gal 5.-22 But the fruit of the Spirit is ..self-control.
2Pe 1:5 For this very reason, make every effort to add to your faith goodness; and to goodness, knowledge, and to knowledge, self-control, and to self-control, perseverance; and to perseverance, godliness
I Timothy 3:2 ...able to teach…   Titus 1:9 He must hold firmly to the trustworthy message as it has been taught, so that he can encourage others by sound doctrine and refute those who oppose it. 10 For there are many rebellious people, mere talkers and deceivers, especially those of the circumcision group. 11 They must be silenced, because they are ruining whole households by teaching things they ought not to teach--and that for the sake of dishonest gain.
1. Can he accurately represent what God has said?
2. Is he a diligent student of the Word of God?
3 . Is he on a path which over the course of a lifetime will lead to mastery of the Truth?
4. Is he mining fresh truth or recycling platitudes?
5. Does he know the whole counsel of God, or just ride hobbyhorses?
6. Does he emphasize what God emphasizes?
a. Is his lifestyle such that he has credibility?
b. Does he practice what he preaches (model godliness)?
c. Is he an embodiment of sound doctrine? (hold firmly to the message)?
a. Is he able to limit his preferences and overcome obstacles to communicate so others understand?
b. Is his teaching geared to knowledge or obedience?
3. IN ENCOURAGING (calling alongside)
a. Does his teaching provide Biblical motivation for obedience?
b. Does he encourage others with the word (sound doctrine) or what they want to hear (pious platitudes)?
c. Does he encourage others in the Lord or build dependence on himself or other temporal props?
a. Does he love people enough to confront unbiblical thinking/actions even when he knows he won't be liked or
accepted (and may even be misunderstood and slandered)?
b. Is he more concerned about his reputation with God than with what others think of him?
c. Are his arguments based upon the Scriptures or his preferences?
d. Does he exhibit gentleness and long-suffering in his rebuking?
e. Does he bring things to light (reproof) before rebuke?
f. Does he allow time for repentance?
g. Does he follow up rebuke with encouragement if there's repentance or with initiating church discipline (Mt 18) if not?
h. Is his goal restoration or condemnation?
I Timothy 3:1 Here is a trustworthy saying: If anyone sets his heart on being an overseer, he desires a noble task.
A. Does he seek to be used by God in leading/serving others or does he act like he's doing God and others a favor?
B. Does he approach serving as worshipful service or a holy hobby?
I Timothy 3:6 He must not be a recent convert, or he may become conceited and fall under the same judgment as the devil.
A. Has he had time to develop mature fruit of the Spirit in his life?
B. Is he prone to conceit or does he have a proper view of himself'.?
C. Has he eagerly sought service in the shadows as well as in the spotlight?
I Timothy 3:7 He must also have a good reputation with outsiders, so that he will not fall into disgrace and into the devil's trap.
A. Does he present the same picture at work or at home as he does at church?
B. Are his business practices above reproach?
C. Does his non-church life draw others to church and Christ?
D. Can he handle responsibility without it going to his head?
E. Would his boss fill out a recommendation form for him?
1Tim 3:8 Deacons. likewise, are to be men worthy of respect, sincere, not indulging in much wine, and not pursuing dishonest gain.
A. Is he worthy of respect due to his accomplishments and competence?
B. Has he done anything to undermine his respect?
XXIV. SINCERE (Not slanderers)
A. Does he keep his promises?
A. Can he restrain and control his appetites and desires?
B. See under "Escapism", "Sound-minded", and "Self-control".
A. See under "Not Pursuing Dishonest Gain".
XXVII. KNOW THE TRUTH & APPLY THE TRUTH  A. See under "Able to Teach".
I Timothy 3. 1 0 They must first be tested, and then if there is nothing against them, let them serve as deacons.
A. Has he demonstrated faithfulness in other "unofficial" tasks'?
ITim 3:11 Same way, their wives are to be women worthy of respect, not malicious talkers, but temperate & trustworthy in everything.
A. Has he been a stimulus to his wife's Christlikeness by both example and word?
B. Has he helped her grow in her obedience to the word and service?
C. Does his wife exhibit order and respectability'?
D. Is his wife known for her gracious edifying speech rather than indiscreet gossip or critical talk?
E. Can his wife be trusted with a secret or a responsibility?

Questions for Reflection/Discussion/Response:
  1. Are all believers models of godliness?  Is godliness automatic or do we have to do something to achieve it? How do you get it?
  2. Why the emphasis on family? How does a woman reflect on her husband? What can you tell about a person from their spouse>
  3. What is “spiritual leadership”? Is it important? Should all men strive to become elders?  Should all believers strive to become godly?
  4. What can you do to increase your GQ (godliness quotient) and that of those around you? Are you a model of godliness?

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