Exodus 19-24 Ten Commandments: Given And Ratified

Psalm 13:1-6 Singing the Blues
13:1 “How long, Yahweh? Will you forget me forever? How long will you hide Your face from me? 2 How long shall I wrestle with my thoughts (NIV), having sorrow in my heart every day? How long shall my enemy triumph over me? 3 Look, and answer me, Yahweh, my God. Give light to my eyes, lest I sleep in death; 4 Lest my enemy say, "I have prevailed against him;" Lest my adversaries rejoice when I fall. 5 BUT, I have trusted in Your hesed. My heart will rejoice in Your salvation. 6 I will sing (praises) to Yahweh, because He has been good to me.”

Observation: Looks like someone is having a bad day: God doesn't take your calls, you wrestle with your thoughts (and lose), the bad guys are beating you up, and you feel like dying. Ever have a week, month, year or decade like that?
13:5 Everything changes because of this verse, trust in God's loyal love toward His people.
Two verb tenses are used “have trusted” = perfect (past completed action); “will rejoice” = imperfect (usually future incomplete action). The tenses flip in 13:6.

Application: When you're singing the blues, recall and reaffirm your trust in God's trustworthy, loyal love, and you'll be singing a different tune.

Prayer: O Lord, my God, because You are loyal to me, I will rejoice in Your salvation, and sing Your praises. (P.S., I wouldn't mind if that happens sooner, rather than later if it's OK with You. Thanks.) Amen.

Proverbs 4:9-13 Walk in Wisdom
4:9 “(7 Wisdom is supreme. Get wisdom...) 9 She will give to your head a garland of grace. She will deliver a crown of splendor to you." 10 Listen, my son, and receive my sayings. The years of your life will be many. 11 I have taught you in the way of wisdom. I have led you in straight paths. 12 When you go, your steps will not be hampered. When you run, you will not stumble. 13 Take firm hold of instruction. Don’t let her go. Keep her, for she is your life."

Observations: 4:9-13 In order to experience the benefits of wisdom, we must listen, learn, and keep a firm grip on her. Wisdom is choosing the right (God glorifying) objectives, and the right means (steps) of reaching them. That means wisdom will guide our steps in the right paths leading to blessing. Abandoning wisdom leads to a short life full of stumbles and missteps.

Application: Get wisdom, don't let it go, but have it guide your steps daily

Prayer: God of wisdom, guide my steps in Your ways every day. Amen.

Exodus 19-24 Overview:
Exodus 19 sets the stage for God to give the law (which addressed moral, religious, and civil life).
Exodus 20 God gives the Big Ten.
Exodus 21-23 There were other law codes in existence going back to Mesopotamia which are all said to come from their gods. Moses gives more specific elaborations of the Ten Commandments, emphasizing the laws for a civil society. Interspersed are stipulations regarding one's relationship with God, but mainly it's rules which would enable the Israelites to live in unity and harmony. Many are applicable to modern society, so if you haven't read them, you would profit from a quick skim. I just included general summary titles in the Observation sections, and you'll find the entire text at the end of the post.
Exodus 24 records the ratification of the Covenant, when the people commit to obey.

Questions to ask as you read:
Why did God say He gives the law?
To whom does God give the law?
What's the means of blessing the people?
Did God expect them to obey it?
What would happen if they didn't obey?
In the context, is there even a hint, much less an explicit statement, that the law was given to show they couldn't keep it? (If so, please put the verse(s) in the comment section.)

See: What's Up with the Law? on Truthbase.net for an OT and NT look at the law.

Exodus 19 Basis of Faith
19:1 "In the third month...on that same day they came into the wilderness of Sinai. 3 Moses went up to God...4 `You have seen what I did to the Egyptians, and how I bore you on eagles` wings, and brought you to myself. 5 Now therefore, if you will indeed obey my voice, and keep my covenant, then you shall be my own possession from among all peoples; for all the earth is mine; 6 and you shall be to me a kingdom of priests, and a holy nation.` 8 All the people answered together, and said, "All that Yahweh has spoken we will do." 9 Yahweh said to Moses, "Behold, I come to you in a thick cloud, that the people may hear when I speak with you, and may also believe you forever." 12 You shall set bounds to the people all around, saying, 'Be careful that you don't go up onto the mountain, or touch its border. Whoever touches the mountain shall be surely put to death.16 On the third day, when it was morning, there were thunders and lightnings, and a thick cloud on the mountain, and the sound of an exceedingly loud trumpet; and all the people who were in the camp trembled. 18 Mount Sinai, the whole of it, smoked, because Yahweh descended on it in fire; and its smoke ascended like the smoke of a furnace, and the whole mountain quaked greatly."

Observations: 19:4-5 The basis of faith was what God had revealed, what they had seen 19:5, and heard (19:9).
19:6 “But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people for God's own possession, that you may proclaim the excellence of him who called you out of darkness into his marvelous light” - 1 Peter 1:9
19:12 Scrupulous obedience required. I'd be quaking too.

Exodus 20 Relationship with God
20:1 "God spoke all these words, saying, 2 "I am Yahweh your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.
I. 3 “You shall have no other gods before me.
II. 4 "You shall not make for yourselves an idol, nor any image of anything that is in the heavens above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth: 5 you shall not bow yourself down to them, nor serve them, for I, Yahweh your God, am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children, on the third and on the fourth generation of those who hate me, 6 and showing hesed/loyal love to thousands of those who love me and keep my commandments.
III. 7 "You shall not bear/take the name of Yahweh your God in vain, for Yahweh will not hold him guiltless who bears/takes his name in vain.
IV. 8 "Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy. 9 You shall labor six days, and do all your work, 10 but the seventh day is a Sabbath to Yahweh your God. You shall not do any work in it, you, nor your son, nor your daughter, your man-servant, nor your maid-servant, nor your cattle, nor your stranger who is within your gates; 11 for in six days Yahweh made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested the seventh day; therefore Yahweh blessed the Sabbath day, and made it holy.
V. 12 "Honor your father and your mother, that your days may be long in the land which Yahweh your God gives you.
VI. 13 "You shall not murder.
VII. 14 "You shall not commit adultery.
VIII. 15 "You shall not steal.
IX. 16 "You shall not give false testimony against your neighbor.
X. 17 "You shall not covet your neighbor`s house. You shall not covet your neighbor`s wife, nor his manservant, nor his maid-servant, nor his ox, nor his donkey, nor anything that is your neighbor`s."
18 All the people perceived the thunderings, the lightnings, the sound of the trumpet, and the mountain smoking. When the people saw it, they trembled, and stayed at a distance. 19 They said to Moses, "Speak with us yourself, and we will listen; but don`t let God speak with us, lest we die." 20 Moses said to the people, "Don`t be afraid, for God has come to refine/test you, and that his fear may be before you, that you won`t sin."
21 The people stayed at a distance, and Moses drew near to the thick darkness where God was. 22 Yahweh said to Moses, "This is what you shall tell the children of Israel: `You yourselves have seen that I have talked with you from heaven. 23 You shall most certainly not make alongside of me gods of silver, or gods of gold for yourselves. 24 You shall make an altar of earth for me, and shall sacrifice on it your burnt offerings and your peace-offerings, your sheep and your oxen. In every place where I record my name I will come to you and I will bless you."

Observations: 20:1 The law was given to a redeemed people (not the other way around).
20:4 This is not a general prohibition against art, but against images to which people bow down. Some traditions consider vv4-6 as subset of v3, and split up v17 on coveting.
20:5 is repeated in Exodus 34 as the essence of God's glory (which Moses asks to see there).
20:7 is probably not about profanity. “Vain/vanity” is falsehood (Deuteronomy 5:20) emptiness, meaningless, to no effect (a chasing after the wind - Ecclesiastes). To bear or call on the name of God and not do what He says, is vanity (in vain). To call oneself a believer, and not believe or trust in everyday life is vanity.
20:8 The Sabbath command starts with a different verb form from all the other commandments. It is the only one not repeated in the NT. It is considered the sign of this covenant. Israel went into captivity for a period years equal to their failure to keep the Sabbath years (coming up in Leviticus 26:33-35).
20:12-16 These are commands to not engage in self-centered behavior at the expense of another (the opposite of love). Seems like a good idea.
Romans 13:10 "Love doesn't harm a neighbor. Love therefore is the fulfillment of the law."
20:17 Coveting is the opposite of the first commandment, and gets to the heart of the matter. If our value system revolves around temporal rather than eternal gratification, will incur guilt
20:20 Fear God so you won't sin. (It's His idea.) What about love? See 7 Questions in sidebar on Lordship.
John 14:15 If you love me, keep my commandments.
20:23-24 Exclusivity is the key to enjoying blessings.

Application: Evaluate yourself against the ten commandments, especially the first and last, and take any appropriate corrective action.

Prayer: God who lovingly redeems and requires loyalty, help me faithfully do what you want. Amen.

Exodus 21 Relationships with Each Other
21:1-11 Slave/Servant and Women's Rights
21:12-17 Capital Crimes
21:18-27 Compensation and Property Rights
21:28-36 Responsible Community Membership

Exodus 22 Legal Relationships
22:1-17 Restitutuion or Slavery for Offenses
22:18-20 Three Capital Offenses
22:21-27 Compassionate Justice
22:28 "You shall not blaspheme God, nor curse a ruler of your people. 29 "You shall not delay to offer from your harvest and from the outflow of your presses. "You shall give the firstborn of your sons to me. 30 You shall do likewise with your oxen and with your sheep. 31 "You shall be holy men to me, therefore you shall not eat any flesh that is torn by animals in the field. You shall cast it to the dogs.

Observations: Out of a relationship with God flow our relationships with each other. Many modern legal principles are found in these verses.

Exodus 23 Regulations
23:1-9 Honesty Justice Other-centeredness (love enemies)
23:10-19 Sabbath Years and Days and Feasts
23:20 "Behold, I send an angel before you, to keep you by the way, and to bring you into the place which I have prepared. 21 Pay attention to him, and listen to his voice. Don`t provoke him, for he will not pardon your disobedience, for my name is in him. 22 But if you indeed listen to his voice, and do all that I speak, then I will be an enemy to your enemies, and an adversary to your adversaries. 23 For my angel shall go before you, and bring you in to the Amorite, the Hittite, the Perizzite, the Canaanite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite; and I will cut them off.
24 You shall not bow down to their gods, nor serve them, nor follow their practices, but you shall utterly overthrow them and demolish their pillars. 25 You shall serve Yahweh your God, and he will bless your bread and your water, and I will take sickness away from your midst. 26 No one will miscarry or be barren in your land. I will fulfill the number of your days. 27 I will send my terror before you, and will confuse all the people to whom you come, and I will make all your enemies turn their backs to you. 28 I will send the hornet before you, which will drive out the Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite, from before you. 29 I will not drive them out from before you in one year, lest the land become desolate, and the animals of the field multiply against you. 30 Little by little I will drive them out from before you, until you have increased and inherit the land. 31 I will set your border from the Red Sea even to the sea of the Philistines, and from the wilderness to the River; for I will deliver the inhabitants of the land into your hand, and you shall drive them out before you. 32 You shall make no covenant with them, nor with their gods. 33 They shall not dwell in your land, lest they make you sin against me, for if you serve their gods, it will surely be a snare to you."

Observations: 23:21 The law was not given them to show they couldn't keep it. God demanded and expected obedience, or else.
23:32-33 God commands His people to be separate (holy) or suffer the consequences.

Exodus 24 Covenant is Ratified
24:3 Moses came and told the people all the words of Yahweh, and all the ordinances; and all the people answered with one voice, and said, "All the words which Yahweh has spoken will we do." 4 Moses wrote all the words of Yahweh 5 He sent young men of the children of Israel, who offered burnt offerings and sacrificed peace-offerings of oxen to Yahweh. 6 Moses took half of the blood and put it in basins, and half of the blood he sprinkled on the altar. 7 He took the book of the covenant and read it in the hearing of the people, and they said, "All that Yahweh has spoken will we do, and be obedient." 8 Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the people, and said, "Look, this is the blood of the covenant, which Yahweh has made with you concerning all these words."
9 Then Moses, Aaron, Nadab, Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel went up. 10 They saw the God of Israel...12 Yahweh said to Moses, "Come up to me on the mountain, and stay here, and I will give you the tables of stone with the law and the commands that I have written, that you may teach them." 14 He said to the elders, "Wait here for us, until we come again to you. Behold, Aaron and Hur are with you. Whoever is involved in a dispute can go to them." 15 Moses went up on the mountain, and the cloud covered the mountain. 16 The glory of Yahweh settled on Mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it six days. The seventh day he called to Moses out of the midst of the cloud. 17 The appearance of the glory of Yahweh was like devouring fire on the top of the mountain in the eyes of the children of Israel. 18 Moses entered into the midst of the cloud, and went up on the mountain; and Moses was on the mountain forty days and forty nights.

Observations: 24:3,7 Twice the people pledge obedience. God seals the deal with them by the sprinkling of blood. See observations on covenants in Gen 15. The sacrifices are not for sins.
24:10 They saw God (see full text below), yet that doesn't prevent future disloyalty.

Application: To get off the spiritual roller coaster of victory and defeat, we need to fear God (His idea) and change our values, so we'll want and do what He wants us to do.

Prayer: Awesome God, keep me mindful of who You are and what You've promised so I may keep Your commandments, as You desire. Amen.

Digging Deeper:

God in a nutshell: God is awesome beyond description; holy and powerful beyond measure, yet He chooses to make and keep a covenant with His people; He meets our needs and gives laws for the benefit of all His people, so we can live in harmony, and be blessed by Him. He expects us to remember and obey, living in exclusive loyalty to Him, and He will punish those who are disloyal and disobey.

Us in a nutshell: We have the potential to be priests to our God, giving Him what He desires, and having a righteous relationship with Him. We are redeemed to serve God, rather than sin; we're recipients of additional blessing dependent upon our obedience.

Where to Go for More:


Exodus 19-24 (complete text)
Exodus 19
19:1 In the third month after the children of Israel had gone forth out of the land of Egypt, on that same day they came into the wilderness of Sinai. 2 When they had departed from Rephidim, and had come to the wilderness of Sinai, they encamped in the wilderness; and there Israel encamped before the mountain. 3 Moses went up to God, and Yahweh called to him out of the mountain, saying, "This is what you shall tell the house of Jacob, and tell the children of Israel: 4 `You have seen what I did to the Egyptians, and how I bore you on eagles` wings, and brought you to myself. 5 Now therefore, if you will indeed obey my voice, and keep my covenant, then you shall be my own possession from among all peoples; for all the earth is mine; 6 and you shall be to me a kingdom of priests, and a holy nation.` These are the words which you shall speak to the children of Israel." 7 Moses came and called for the elders of the people, and set before them all these words which Yahweh commanded him. 8 All the people answered together, and said, "All that Yahweh has spoken we will do." Moses reported the words of the people to Yahweh. 9 Yahweh said to Moses, "Behold, I come to you in a thick cloud, that the people may hear when I speak with you, and may also believe you forever." Moses told the words of the people to Yahweh. 10 Yahweh said to Moses, "Go to the people, and sanctify them today and tomorrow, and let them wash their garments, 11 and be ready against the third day; for on the third day Yahweh will come down in the sight of all the people on Mount Sinai. 12 You shall set bounds to the people round about, saying, `Be careful that you don`t go up onto the mountain, or touch its border. Whoever touches the mountain shall be surely put to death. 13 No hand shall touch him, but he shall surely be stoned or shot through; whether it is animal or man, he shall not live.` When the trumpet sounds long, they shall come up to the mountain." 14 Moses went down from the mountain to the people, and sanctified the people; and they washed their clothes. 15 He said to the people, "Be ready by the third day. Don`t have sexual relations with a woman." 16 It happened on the third day, when it was morning, that there were thunders and lightnings, and a thick cloud on the mountain, and the sound of an exceedingly loud trumpet; and all the people who were in the camp trembled. 17 Moses led the people out of the camp to meet God; and they stood at the lower part of the mountain. 18 Mount Sinai, the whole of it, smoked, because Yahweh descended on it in fire; and its smoke ascended like the smoke of a furnace, and the whole mountain quaked greatly. 19 When the sound of the trumpet grew louder and louder, Moses spoke, and God answered him by a voice. 20 Yahweh came down on Mount Sinai, to the top of the mountain. Yahweh called Moses to the top of the mountain, and Moses went up. 21 Yahweh said to Moses, "Go down, charge the people, lest they break through to Yahweh to gaze, and many of them perish. 22 Let the priests also, who come near to Yahweh, sanctify themselves, lest Yahweh break forth on them." 23 Moses said to Yahweh, "The people can`t come up to Mount Sinai, for you charged us, saying, `Set bounds around the mountain, and sanctify it.`" 24 Yahweh said to him, "Go down and you shall bring Aaron up with you, but don`t let the priests and the people break through to come up to Yahweh, lest he break forth on them." 25 So Moses went down to the people, and told them.

Exodus 20
20:1 God spoke all these words, saying, 2 "I am Yahweh your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. 3 You shall have no other gods before me. 4 "You shall not make for yourselves an idol, nor any image of anything that is in the heavens above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth: 5 you shall not bow yourself down to them, nor serve them, for I, Yahweh your God, am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children, on the third and on the fourth generation of those who hate me, 6 and showing lovingkindness to thousands of those who love me and keep my commandments. 7 "You shall not take the name of Yahweh your God in vain, for Yahweh will not hold him guiltless who takes his name in vain. 8 "Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy. 9 You shall labor six days, and do all your work, 10 but the seventh day is a Sabbath to Yahweh your God. You shall not do any work in it, you, nor your son, nor your daughter, your man-servant, nor your maid-servant, nor your cattle, nor your stranger who is within your gates; 11 for in six days Yahweh made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested the seventh day; therefore Yahweh blessed the Sabbath day, and made it holy. 12 "Honor your father and your mother, that your days may be long in the land which Yahweh your God gives you. 13 "You shall not murder. 14 "You shall not commit adultery. 15 "You shall not steal. 16 "You shall not give false testimony against your neighbor. 17 "You shall not covet your neighbor`s house. You shall not covet your neighbor`s wife, nor his manservant, nor his maid-servant, nor his ox, nor his donkey, nor anything that is your neighbor`s." 18 All the people perceived the thunderings, the lightnings, the sound of the trumpet, and the mountain smoking. When the people saw it, they trembled, and stayed at a distance. 19 They said to Moses, "Speak with us yourself, and we will listen; but don`t let God speak with us, lest we die." 20 Moses said to the people, "Don`t be afraid, for God has come to test you, and that his fear may be before you, that you won`t sin." 21 The people stayed at a distance, and Moses drew near to the thick darkness where God was. 22 Yahweh said to Moses, "This is what you shall tell the children of Israel: `You yourselves have seen that I have talked with you from heaven. 23 You shall most certainly not make alongside of me gods of silver, or gods of gold for yourselves. 24 You shall make an altar of earth for me, and shall sacrifice on it your burnt offerings and your peace-offerings, your sheep and your oxen. In every place where I record my name I will come to you and I will bless you. 25 If you make me an altar of stone, you shall not build it of hewn stones; for if you lift up your tool on it, you have polluted it. 26 Neither shall you go up by steps to my altar, that your nakedness may not be exposed to it.`

Exodus 21
21:1 "Now these are the ordinances which you shall set before them. 2 If you buy a Hebrew servant, he shall serve six years and in the seventh he shall go out free without paying anything. 3 If he comes in by himself, he shall go out by himself. If he is married, then his wife shall go out with him. 4 If his master gives him a wife and she bears him sons or daughters, the wife and her children shall be her master`s, and he shall go out by himself. 5 But if the servant shall plainly say, `I love my master, my wife, and my children. I will not go out free;` 6 then his master shall bring him to God, and shall bring him to the door or to the door-post, and his master shall bore his ear through with an awl, and he shall serve him for ever. 7 "If a man sells his daughter to be a maid-servant, she shall not go out as the men-servants do. 8 If she doesn`t please her master, who has married her to himself, then he shall let her be redeemed. He shall have no right to sell her to a foreign people, seeing he has dealt deceitfully with her. 9 If he marries her to his son, he shall deal with her after the manner of daughters. 10 If he takes another wife to himself, he shall not diminish her food, her clothing, and her marital rights. 11 If he doesn`t do these three things for her, she may go free without paying any money. 12 "One who strikes a man so that he dies shall surely be put to death, 13 but not if it is unintentional, but God allows it to happen: then I will appoint you a place where he shall flee. 14 If a man schemes and comes presumptuously on his neighbor to kill him, you shall take him from my altar, that he may die. 15 "Anyone who attacks his father or his mother shall be surely put to death. 16 "Anyone who kidnaps someone and sells him, or if he is found in his hand, he shall surely be put to death. 17 "Anyone who curses his father or his mother shall surely be put to death. 18 "If men quarrel and one strikes the other with a stone, or with his fist, and he doesn`t die, but is confined to bed; 19 if he rises again and walks around with his staff, then he who struck him shall be cleared: only he shall pay for the loss of his time, and shall provide for his healing until he is thoroughly healed. 20 "If a man strikes his servant or his maid with a rod, and he dies under his hand, he shall surely be punished. 21 Notwithstanding, if he gets up after a day or two, he shall not be punished, for he is his property. 22 "If men fight and hurt a pregnant woman so that she gives birth prematurely, and yet no harm follows, he shall be surely fined as much as the woman`s husband demands and the judges allow. 23 But if any harm follows, then you must take life for life, 24 eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, 25 burning for burning, wound for wound, and bruise for bruise. 26 "If a man strikes his servant`s eye, or his maid`s eye, and destroys it, he shall let him go free for his eye`s sake. 27 If he strikes out his man-servant`s tooth, or his maid-servant`s tooth, he shall let him go free for his tooth`s sake. 28 "If a bull gores a man or a woman to death, the bull shall surely be stoned, and its flesh shall not be eaten; but the owner of the bull shall not be held responsible. 29 But if the bull had a habit of goring in the past, and it has been testified to its owner, and he has not kept it in, but it has killed a man or a woman, the bull shall be stoned, and its owner shall also be put to death. 30 If a ransom is laid on him, then he shall give for the redemption of his life whatever is laid on him. 31 Whether it has gored a son or has gored a daughter, according to this judgment it shall be done to him. 32 If the bull gores a man-servant or a maid-servant, thirty shekels of silver shall be given to their master, and the ox shall be stoned. 33 "If a man opens a pit, or if a man digs a pit and doesn`t cover it, and a bull or a donkey falls into it, 34 the owner of the pit shall make it good. He shall give money to its owner, and the dead animal shall be his. 35 "If one man`s bull injures another`s, so that it dies, then they shall sell the live bull, and divide its price; and they shall also divide the dead animal. 36 Or if it is known that the bull was in the habit of goring in the past, and its owner has not kept it in, he shall surely pay bull for bull, and the dead animal shall be his own.

Exodus 22
22:1 "If a man steals an ox or a sheep, and kills it, or sells it; he shall pay five oxen for an ox, and four sheep for a sheep. 2 If the thief is found breaking in, and is struck so that he dies, there shall be no guilt of bloodshed for him. 3 If the sun has risen on him, there shall be guilt of bloodshed for him; he shall make restitution. If he has nothing, then he shall be sold for his theft. 4 If the stolen property is found in his hand alive, whether it is ox, donkey, or sheep, he shall pay double. 5 "If a man causes a field or vineyard to be eaten, and lets his animal loose, and it grazes in another man`s field, he shall make restitution from the best of his own field, and from the best of his own vineyard. 6 "If fire breaks out, and catches in thorns so that the shocks of grain, or the standing grain, or the field are consumed; he who kindled the fire shall surely make restitution. 7 "If a man delivers to his neighbor money or stuff to keep, and it is stolen out of the man`s house; if the thief is found, he shall pay double. 8 If the thief isn`t found, then the master of the house shall come near to God, to find out if he hasn`t put his hand to his neighbor`s goods. 9 For every matter of trespass, whether it be for ox, for donkey, for sheep, for clothing, or for any kind of lost thing, whereof one says, `This is mine,` the cause of both parties shall come before God. He whom God condemns shall pay double to his neighbor. 10 "If a man delivers to his neighbor a donkey, an ox, a sheep, or any animal to keep, and it dies or is injured, or driven away, no man seeing it; 11 the oath of Yahweh shall be between them both, whether he hasn`t put his hand to his neighbor`s goods; and the owner of it shall accept it, and he shall not make restitution. 12 But if it is stolen from him, he shall make restitution to the owner of it. 13 If it is torn in pieces, let him bring it for evidence. He shall not make good that which was torn. 14 "If a man borrows anything of his neighbor`s, and it is injured, or dies, the owner of it not being with it, he shall surely make restitution. 15 If the owner of it is with it, he shall not make it good. If it is a leased thing, it came for its lease. 16 "If a man entices a virgin who isn`t pledged to be married, and lies with her, he shall surely pay a dowry for her to be his wife. 17 If her father utterly refuses to give her to him, he shall pay money according to the dowry of virgins. 18 "You shall not allow a sorceress to live. 19 "Whoever has sex with an animal shall surely be put to death. 20 "He who sacrifices to any god, except to Yahweh only, shall be utterly destroyed. 21 "You shall not wrong an alien, neither shall you oppress him, for you were aliens in the land of Egypt. 22 "You shall not take advantage of any widow or fatherless child. 23 If you take advantage of them at all, and they cry at all to me, I will surely hear their cry; 24 and my wrath will grow hot, and I will kill you with the sword; and your wives shall be widows, and your children fatherless. 25 "If you lend money to any of my people with you who is poor, you shall not be to him as a creditor; neither shall you charge him interest. 26 If you take your neighbor`s garment as collateral, you shall restore it to him before the sun goes down, 27 for that is his only covering, it is his garment for his skin. What would he sleep in? It will happen, when he cries to me, that I will hear, for I am gracious. 28 "You shall not blaspheme God, nor curse a ruler of your people. 29 "You shall not delay to offer from your harvest and from the outflow of your presses. "You shall give the firstborn of your sons to me. 30 You shall do likewise with your oxen and with your sheep. Seven days it shall be with its mother, then on the eighth day you shall give it me. 31 "You shall be holy men to me, therefore you shall not eat any flesh that is torn by animals in the field. You shall cast it to the dogs.

Exodus 23
23:1 "You shall not spread a false report. Don`t join your hand with the wicked to be a malicious witness. 2 You shall not follow a crowd to do evil; neither shall you testify in court to side with a multitude to pervert justice; 3 neither shall you favor a poor man in his cause. 4 "If you meet your enemy`s ox or his donkey going astray, you shall surely bring it back to him again. 5 If you see the donkey of him who hates you fallen down under his burden, don`t leave him, you shall surely help him with it. 6 "You shall not deny justice to your poor people in their lawsuits. 7 "Keep far from a false charge, and don`t kill the innocent and righteous: for I will not justify the wicked. 8 You shall take no bribe, for a bribe blinds those who have sight and perverts the words of the righteous. 9 "You shall not oppress an alien, for you know the heart of an alien, seeing you were aliens in the land of Egypt. 10 "For six years you shall sow your land, and shall gather in its increase, 11 but the seventh year you shall let it rest and lie fallow, that the poor of your people may eat; and what they leave the animal of the field shall eat. In like manner you shall deal with your vineyard and with your olive grove. 12 "Six days you shall do your work, and on the seventh day you shall rest, that your ox and your donkey may have rest, and the son of your handmaid, and the alien may be refreshed. 13 "Be careful to do all things that I have said to you; and don`t invoke the name of other gods, neither let them be heard out of your mouth. 14 "You shall observe a feast to me three times a year. 15 You shall observe the feast of unleavened bread. Seven days you shall eat unleavened bread, as I commanded you, at the time appointed in the month Abib (for in it you came out from Egypt), and no one shall appear before me empty. 16 And the feast of harvest, the first-fruits of your labors, which you sow in the field: and the feast of harvest, at the end of the year, when you gather in your labors out of the field. 17 Three times in the year all your males shall appear before the Lord Yahweh. 18 "You shall not offer the blood of my sacrifice with leavened bread, neither shall the fat of my feast remain all night until the morning. 19 The first of the first-fruits of your ground you shall bring into the house of Yahweh your God. "You shall not boil a kid in its mother`s milk. 20 "Behold, I send an angel before you, to keep you by the way, and to bring you into the place which I have prepared. 21 Pay attention to him, and listen to his voice. Don`t provoke him, for he will not pardon your disobedience, for my name is in him. 22 But if you indeed listen to his voice, and do all that I speak, then I will be an enemy to your enemies, and an adversary to your adversaries. 23 For my angel shall go before you, and bring you in to the Amorite, the Hittite, the Perizzite, the Canaanite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite; and I will cut them off. 24 You shall not bow down to their gods, nor serve them, nor follow their practices, but you shall utterly overthrow them and demolish their pillars. 25 You shall serve Yahweh your God, and he will bless your bread and your water, and I will take sickness away from your midst. 26 No one will miscarry or be barren in your land. I will fulfill the number of your days. 27 I will send my terror before you, and will confuse all the people to whom you come, and I will make all your enemies turn their backs to you. 28 I will send the hornet before you, which will drive out the Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite, from before you. 29 I will not drive them out from before you in one year, lest the land become desolate, and the animals of the field multiply against you. 30 Little by little I will drive them out from before you, until you have increased and inherit the land. 31 I will set your border from the Red Sea even to the sea of the Philistines, and from the wilderness to the River; for I will deliver the inhabitants of the land into your hand, and you shall drive them out before you. 32 You shall make no covenant with them, nor with their gods. 33 They shall not dwell in your land, lest they make you sin against me, for if you serve their gods, it will surely be a snare to you."

Exodus 24
24:1 He said to Moses, "Come up to Yahweh, you, and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel; and worship from a distance. 2 Moses alone shall come near to Yahweh, but they shall not come near, neither shall the people go up with him." 3 Moses came and told the people all the words of Yahweh, and all the ordinances; and all the people answered with one voice, and said, "All the words which Yahweh has spoken will we do." 4 Moses wrote all the words of Yahweh, and rose up early in the morning, and built an altar under the mountain, and twelve pillars for the twelve tribes of Israel. 5 He sent young men of the children of Israel, who offered burnt offerings and sacrificed peace-offerings of oxen to Yahweh. 6 Moses took half of the blood and put it in basins, and half of the blood he sprinkled on the altar. 7 He took the book of the covenant and read it in the hearing of the people, and they said, "All that Yahweh has spoken will we do, and be obedient." 8 Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the people, and said, "Look, this is the blood of the covenant, which Yahweh has made with you concerning all these words." 9 Then Moses, Aaron, Nadab, Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel went up. 10 They saw the God of Israel. Under his feet was like a paved work of sapphire stone, like the skies for clearness. 11 He didn`t lay his hand on the nobles of the children of Israel. They saw God, and ate and drank. 12 Yahweh said to Moses, "Come up to me on the mountain, and stay here, and I will give you the tables of stone with the law and the commands that I have written, that you may teach them." 13 Moses rose up with Joshua, his servant, and Moses went up onto God`s Mountain. 14 He said to the elders, "Wait here for us, until we come again to you. Behold, Aaron and Hur are with you. Whoever is involved in a dispute can go to them." 15 Moses went up on the mountain, and the cloud covered the mountain. 16 The glory of Yahweh settled on Mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it six days. The seventh day he called to Moses out of the midst of the cloud. 17 The appearance of the glory of Yahweh was like devouring fire on the top of the mountain in the eyes of the children of Israel. 18 Moses entered into the midst of the cloud, and went up on the mountain; and Moses was on the mountain forty days and forty nights.